by Brandon Rhodes • Home

Mounting WSGI Applications Under CherryPy

Date: 4 May 2011
Tags:computing, python

Today I got stuck between a rock and hard place — or, more specifically, stuck between the assumptions of Robert Brewer and those of Ian Bicking. In case you ever try mounting a WSGI application underneath a larger CherryPy application, here is the story.

Simple WSGI grafting

Robert Brewer's CherryPy is a Python web framework of the controllers-and-methods variety. CherryPy has a long, solid track record, and is especially well-known for shipping with a built-in production-quality web server. The server is so good that it is sometimes used standalone, without the actual CherryPy framework behind it, to serve other Python web applications through their WSGI callable:

# Easy: putting a WSGI `app` behind the CherryPy HTTP server

server = CherryPyWSGIServer(('', 8001), app, numthreads=30)

Sometimes, however, it is nice to have the entire CherryPy web framework running — not merely its HTTP server — in combination with an existing WSGI application. This arrangement makes it easy to do things like provide static resources alongside more dynamic content generated in Python:

# More interesting: mounting `app` beneath a particular URL path
# This works, but `app` gets no logging or error handling

cherrypy.tree.graft(app, '/api')
cherrypy.tree.mount(None, '/static', {'/' : {
    'tools.staticdir.dir': static_root,
    'tools.staticdir.on': True,

Although this arrangement works, I soon received some unpleasant surprises. When an exception was thrown inside of app the server never returned a response to the browser — no 500 Internal Server Error, no pretty traceback in development mode; just a closed connection. And neither errors nor successful requests inside of app resulted in access log messages; CherryPy was completely silent about them.

This made it necessary for me to adjust my mental model for how CherryPy operates.

I had always thought of the CherryPy framework as having great big arms that wrapped around my entire set of active controllers and applications, so that it could catch exceptions and log HTTP requests regardless of where in my tree they originated. Now, however, I was forced to recognize that the CherryPy try…except exception catcher and its logging handlers must only get involved when invoking a controller inside of a real CherryPy app. If an HTTP request is instead being handed off to a WSGI application of my own devising, then CherryPy took no further responsibility for what happened — I was on my own.

Finding WSGI components

Well, okay, I was not really on my own — thanks to the wonderful Python community, I sit surrounded by the rich and vibrant WSGI ecosystem of well-supported interchangeable parts. And logging and exception handling are standard features that everyone needs, right?

Alas, the reality turned out to be far more murky. After scouting about for some applicable WSGI middleware and utilities, I started to sympathize with Python newbies who complain about getting lost in the vast sea of broken software. My long experience in the Python community means that I often already know the “right tool” for the right situation, which shields me from remembering what a mess Python newcomers face when searching for even a simple solution.

For example, the popular flup package's documentation promised that middleware.error contained an application for catching WSGI application errors.

$ pip install flup
Downloading/unpacking flup...
$ python -c 'import flup.middleware'
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "<string>", line 1, in <module>
ImportError: No module named middleware

Drat, that must not be released yet. What about this logging module listed on the WSGI wiki?

$ pip install wsgilog
Downloading/unpacking wsgilog...
ImportError: No module named ez_setup

Wow, it does not even install. Well, what about Werkzeug?

Armin Ronacher's Werkzeug is renowned for its WSGI debugging middleware, and it did actually install. But when wrapped around my application, it simply displayed a traceback of its own failure to parse and display the error my application was encountering!

(If you want to know my guess as to the problem: it appears that some of my Python code is Unicode rather than plain ASCII. To display it, Werkzeug encodes it as UTF-8, prepends a BOM marker, and passes it to the Standard Library's compiler.parse() function — which then promptly explodes because in Python 2.7 the AST represents a BOM using a new node type, 304, which other Standard Library code is not yet prepared to accept. I have opened an issue to see whether Armin thinks my guess makes sense before I try reporting it in the Python bug tracker.)

And so I wound up using Python Paste which installs and works quite cleanly, and which let me add both basic logging and error catching using just a few lines of code:

# Transform bare `app` into one that logs and 500s on exceptions

from paste.exceptions.errormiddleware import ErrorMiddleware
from paste.translogger import TransLogger

app = ErrorMiddleware(app, debug=debug_flag)
app = TransLogger(app, setup_console_handler=debug_flag)

# Now we proceed as before to build our CherryPy application.

cherrypy.tree.graft(app, '/api')

So far, so good.

The rock and the hard place

The Paste error handler let me diagnose and repair my WSGI application in development mode. When I started to switch things back over to production, however, I received a surprise: exceptions were always printed to sys.stderr even if I turned on every single option I could find, in both CherryPy and Paste, for logging to actual files.

What was going on?

It turns out that I had run into a pair of hard-coded assumptions that could not be solved by mere configuration.

In Ian Bicking's Paste project, the traceback is directed to the wsgi.error file provided in the WSGI environment:

# from paste/exceptions/

class ErrorMiddleware(object):
    def exception_handler(self, exc_info, environ):
        return handle_exception(
            exc_info, environ['wsgi.errors'],

The logic within handle_exception() unfortunately insists on sending at least a little text to the stream provided as its second argument, even if you have turned on some of its other kinds of logging (like sending an email or writing to a log).

And the identity of that wsgi.errors stream — one of the few “live” objects inside of the WSGI environment, whose dictionary values are mostly immutable objects like strings — is hard-coded by Robert Brewer inside of the module that invokes WSGI applications:

# from cherrypy/wsgiserver/

class WSGIGateway_10(WSGIGateway):

    def get_environ(self):
        """Return a new environ dict targeting the given wsgi.version"""
        env = {
            'wsgi.errors': sys.stderr,
         return env

His definition of WSGI 1.0, then, sets wsgi.errors without (so far as I can see) any hope of amendment or recourse. Thus the rock and the hard place: Robert insisted that the default stream be stderr, and Ian's logging module insisted that something be written there.

Cutting the Gordian knot

One of the great satisfactions of Python, in the last analysis, is that when you find yourself trapped in a situation like this there are generally several ways to escape and get back to more productive tasks, like writing code of your own.

But each of the above ideas has the disadvantage of making me adjust something big and global to fix a problem which, in my program, is small and specific.

At the moment, therefore, I have added my own tiny piece of WSGI middleware between Robert's class and Ian's code which overwrites wsgi.errors with something more appropriate:

# Adding three middlewares: error, logging, and my own

app = ErrorMiddleware(app, debug=debug_flag)
app = TransLogger(app, setup_console_handler=debug_flag)

errlog = open('http-tracebacks.log', 'a', 0)

def app2(environ, start_response):
    environ['wsgi.errors'] = errlog
    return app(environ, start_response)

cherrypy.tree.graft(app2, '/api')

And my daemonized application is finally humming along without the least desire to write to standard error! To me, this is a great little example of why a pluggable architecture like WSGI is so powerful in a language like Python that makes it easy to create and manipulate functions as first-class objects.

All of which leaves me with three thoughts.

First — looking at the install errors, and how my attempt to use Werkzeug apparently revealed a bug in Python's Standard Library itself — I was painfully reminded of what a mess the Python ecosystem must look like to those not familiar with its landscape. If only we could communicate how rare experiences like this are, once you develop a solid personal tool set and learn your way around what works and what doesn't!

Second, I wish that CherryPy were willing to do logging and exception handling for mounted WSGI applications. I will have to ask Robert whether my approach here is even correct, or whether there is some other way to call my own applications without turning off so many features.

Finally, it occurs to me that instead of choosing Paste and then spending far too long to make it work, I should have tried out the competing middleware components that Chris McDonough has produced as part of his Repoze project. I had not even thought of Repoze until writing this blog entry, probably because of an unconscious assumption that installing anything from the Zope world would probably install a half-dozen dependencies. But I just tried installing repoze.errorlog and it only requires a small package called meld3 and, oddly enough, its competitor paste itself! I should try it out before closing this issue.

Anyway, I hope this write-up helps someone else who needs to use WSGI middleware to backfill the features that are normally provided as part of a large Python web framework. And, of course, I look forward to comments from the community about how my approach here could have been more elegant!

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